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Jewelry 101

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14kt gold
14kt gold contains 58.3% gold. It contains 14 parts gold and 10 parts other metals.
18kt gold
18kt jewelry is 75% gold and contains 18 parts of gold and six other metals.
4 Cs
4 Cs- Cut, Carat, Color, and Clarity are criteria to assess the quality of a diamond.
AGS (The American Gem Society) is a leader in diamond grading and is the source of most third party lab grading reports.
An alloy is a metal that's an ingredient in other metals. Copper and silver are both common alloys, they can change what colors the metal looks like and how durable it is..
This is a semi - precious purple stone. It is a type of quartz that comes in various colors making it an attractive rock for jewelry.
Anniversary ring
An eternity ring is a popular type of anniversary ring. It symbolizes that the love felt between two people will never fade away.
Jewelry that is over 100 years old.
Art deco
Art deco jewelry is characterized by geometric shapes and white metals.
Asscher cut
A square shaped cut, a diamond is recognizable because of a cross in the stone which can be seen from the table.
A baguette diamond is a step cut diamond with a rectangular shape and usually straight or tapered ends. Baguette diamonds are often used as side stones in engagement rings to create a vintage look.
Bangle bracelet
A material that is hard, but does not have a place to hold items together.
Bar setting
A setting that secures a diamond with two vertical metal bars on either side of the stone.
Beveled edge
Beveled rings are flat on top with a slanted edge going in one direction.
Bezel setting
This setting is the most secure. It's shaped like a circle of metal that goes all the way around the stone instead of prongs attaching to it on only one side.
A blemish is an imperfection on the outside of a diamond.
Blue sapphire
A precious gemstone with a Mohs hardness of 9. While sapphire can come in many colors, blue sapphire is the most well known color.
Blue topaz
This gem has an 8 on the Mohs scale. Naturally occurring blue topaz is rare, so typically it's treated to get its blue hue.
Bridal set
An engagement ring and matching wedding band go together, so they're often called "a bridal set."
Diamonds are best remembered for their ability to reflect white light.
Brilliant cut
A diamond that is cut with the maximum 58 facets to produce maximum brilliance
Carat (ct)
A carat is the measurement of how heavy a diamond is. One carat is equal to 200 milligrams. The size of a diamond also has a major impact on weight, apart from its size.
Cathedral setting
Cathedrals are often seen with a band around the building that gradually rises upward to secure the diamond. This band also adds durability support and allows more light in, creating more sparkle.
This type of inclusion is a hole in the diamond’s surface. Depending on your needs, they could affect the overall durability of diamonds
Here are the details on your diamond, which this certificate/report lists in 4 Cs. GIA stands for Gemological Institute of America.
Channel set
Channel set diamonds are set in slots and are held in place using the pressure of the sides of the band.
Diamonds are cut with a series of shallow indentations that create what's called original inclusion. Sometimes, this type of inclusion is created while cutting the stone.
This semi-precious gemstone can be bright yellow to red-orange in colour, with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale.
Clarity is one the 4 Cs that characterize a diamond. It refers to the lack or rarity of imperfections within a diamond.
Claw prong
The claw prong holds the stone in place with tiny bits of metal that taper off.
The parts of a diamond that are easy to split due to weak atomic bonds. Gemstone cutters will typically cut the stone according to those very lines as they're easier to distinguish and aim for.
This type of inclusion is very tiny and cannot be distinguished under magnification, they're like a cloudy inclusion inside the diamond that can't be seen with the naked eye. 
This silver-colored metal is very durable and allergy-safe. It's perfect for those looking for a stylish, everlasting wedding band.
Cocktail ring
You can wear this ring to formal events with the large centerstone catching to eye.
One of the 4 Cs. Color actually refers to how much color a diamond reflects. The grading scale ranges from "D" (completely colorless) to "Z" (yellow or brown).
Comfort fit
A comfort fit ring comes with rounded edges to help prevent cuts, bruises & other irritations.
The crown of a diamond is the piece that encompasses the entire top half of the stone. It includes everything from the point to below the largest part of a gem's table.
This inclusion consists of crystals that are trapped inside the diamond during its formation.
Cubic Zirconia
Ritani does not sell diamond simulant cubic zirconia.
A culet is the smallest part of the diamond which is found at the bottom of its pavilion. It can be either a point or a fancy shape.
Cushion cut
The cushion diamond has a square or rectangular shape with curved edges.
A diamond’s cut grade is one of the 4 Cs. The higher the cut grade, the more sparkle it will produce
One measure of the stone's depth is the table to culet measurement.
Diamond Grading Report
This GIA certification is your assurance that this diamond has been authenticated. It holds all the details you'll need about carat weight, cut, color, clarity and more.
The separation of light inside a gemstone that creates fire.
Double prong
The two prongs on the back of the ring that are the same size and shape keep it securely in place.
Emerald cut
Emerald cut diamonds are rectangular shaped, emphasize clarity rather than sparkle and date back to the 1920s.
Engagement ring
When a man presents a woman with an engagement ring, he is making a promise to her. They consider it a sign of their commitment and wear the ring on their left hand on their ring finger.
Engraving is a popular method of personalizing rings. Designs can be engraved on the exterior or interior band, or you can even have words written on the inside of the band.
Enhanced gems
An enhanced gemstone is a better looking gem due to treatments. This can be for color, clarity or durability.
Eternity band
A traditional eternity ring features a continuous diamond band that runs all the way around. Eternity rings are popular as wedding rings and anniversary presents, and can be used to celebrate any length of time.
Eye clean
A diamond is an eye clean stone if it has no imperfections visible to the naked eye.
Fancy color diamonds
Fancy color diamonds are those that do not fall into the normal color range, such as pink, blue and yellow. This makes them more expensive than other diamonds and very rare.
Fancy cut
Also called diamond cuts other than round brilliant - for example, oval cut, pear cut, and emerald cut diamonds.
What are feather diamonds? Feathers are an inclusion in a diamond, which is usually caused by fissures in the diamond when it was forming billions of years ago. They only adversely affect the durability if they're found close to the girdle or near visible facet edges.
Diamonds are known for their fire, which is an electric quality created by reflection, hard light and refraction. Cut determines how much fire the diamond will have. The higher the cut grade of the diamond, the more electric it will be.
Fluorescence is a soft light a diamond might give off when placed under ultraviolet light. Not all diamonds have fluorescence. Although it can't be seen under regular lighting conditions, this property is considered a defect and reduces the cost of the stone.
French set
A french set diamond is a diamond that has small beads on the outside, which let light enter it more easily.
Garnet is a semi-precious stone that is most famous for its red colour. Usually it has a hardness level of between 6.5 and 7.5 on the Mohs scale.
The GIA is a leading gem and jewelry research & education center. It's also renowned for having created the 4 Cs.
The girdle is the widest part of a diamond as well as the outermost edge where the crown and pavilion connects.
Girdle reflection
A girdle reflection may look like a crack in the diamond, even though it's really just a reflection caused by the pavilion facets. The size of the girdle reflection depends on how thick the girdle is.
Half moon diamond
A Half Moon Diamond looks like a round or oval diamond cut in half. It features a brilliant facet pattern which produces sparkle and is often used as the main stone in an engagement ring
Halo setting
Halo settings encircle the center diamond with small diamonds, making it look bigger and improving the overall sparkle of the ring.
Hammered finish
A hammered finish is a popular style of men's wedding bands. This style features small indentations on the band, as if the ring were hammered by hand.
It’s easy to understand why gemstones are popular for their hardness. It allows us to easily identify the relatively soft or hard materials. That is because there are 10 different levels of relative hardness, with 1 being the weakest and 10 being the hardest.
Heart cut
A heart cut diamond is a modified brilliant cut with a heart shaped, and can be a beautiful choice for an engagement ring or something as small as a diamond pendant.
Hidden halo setting
A halo setting is one of the most popular diamond ring designs. This setting features a small circle of diamonds placed around the head of the center stone, which will give more dazzle and sophistication to it.
High polish finish
A high polish finish on a ring is an ultra glowy and reflective finish.
Hypoallergenic metals are unlikely to cause an allergic reaction or irritation, says new research.
Ritani's lab-grown diamond's come with an IGI certification. 
Inclusions are flaws or imperfections in a diamond and can decrease the clarity grade. However, they also make each diamond unique and it's worth considering for those who prioritize uniqueness over clarity.
Indented natural
A natural is a diamond imperfection and an indented natural is simply a natural that caused the diamond to have a blemish in it. If an indented natural blemishes the part of the diamond where it meets the crown or pavilion, we call this an "indented" or "unpolished" natural. Indented Naturals don't affect.
Invisible setting
An invisible setting subtly blends diamonds together to mimic a larger diamond. It's very fitting for dramatic rings. Invisible settings are usually square cut diamonds, which are common in princess cut stones because round diamonds cannot be invisibly set.
Jewelry steamer
A jewelry steamer is a machine that uses heat and water vapor to clean jewelry. It can be an affordable investment for anyone who buys expensive jewelry, because it cleans up dirty pieces quickly & easily while removing tarnish and oxidation at the same time.
Karat (kt)
Karat is a way of measuring the purity of gold. Jewellery with a higher karat means that more gold was used.
Kimberley Process
The Kimberley Process is a group of countries committed to stopping conflict diamonds from getting into the public supply. As such, over 99% of the world's diamond supply is made up of "clean" or non-conflict stones.
Knife edge
Knife edge bands feature raised edges that meet in the center of the band, creating an angled look. The angles these cuts create allow light to easily reflect off of the band and make it look more shiny.
A knot in a diamond is an inclusion in the diamond crystal that reaches the surface of the finished diamond. It's raised and will be noticeable to someone running their hand across it if it has enough size.
Lab grown diamond
Lab grown diamonds, which are also known as cultured diamonds, have the same physical properties and chemical makeup as mined diamonds. The only difference between them is that lab made ones come from a controlled environment.
Laser inscription
A laser inscription is an optional engraving of numbers and letters on your diamond. It can be used as a unique identifier, though it's not visible to the naked window. You would need a magnifying lens to see a laser inscription.
Jewelers use the magnifying lens to examine a gemstone more closely.
Low profile
An engagement ring with a low-profile setting sits close to your finger.
Luster is the white shine of a gemstone or jewelry.
A mandrel is a professional tool that helps jewelers to determine the size of a ring.
Marquise cut
A marquise shaped diamond is an elongated oval with smooth curves and pointed edges. The marquise cut diamond has one of the best size-to-carat ratios, meaning that your diamond will appear larger than if it had been in any other shape.
Martini setting
The martini setting is a very common 3-prong setting style that was first designed to hold the cushion or pear shape. It looks like a martini glass, hence its name. This is an excellent choice for weddings and other evening events where people wear diamonds on their ears.
Matched set
A matched set means two diamonds that share the same size, shape and features. It could also refer to an engagement ring and a wedding band - they were designed to match.
Matte finish
A ring with a matte finish has no shine. They are popular for men’s wedding rings because men don’t prefer shiny rings.
Melee diamonds
Melee diamonds are the small diamonds that weigh less than 5 carats. They can be used on an engagement ring's band or as a halo around the centerstone.
Micropave diamonds are set down in a groove and secured by small prongs. This technique typically only has one row of the precious gemstones, but the micropave can have many. These are arranged in a checkered pattern, with a new row around the edge slightly overlapping the row before it 
Milgrain detailing is a design technique primarily used in jewelry and looks like a close-set row of tiny metal beads. It's most commonly used on jewelry borders but can also be found in vintage-inspired designs.
Mixed cut
A mixed cut diamond is an amalgamation of the modified brilliant cut and the step-cut. This type of diamond includes princess cut diamonds, cushion cut diamonds, and radiant cut diamonds
Modified brilliant
Modified brilliant cut diamonds are modified versions of the classic brilliant diamond. The most popular versions of these diamonds include oval, pear, marquise and heart shaped stones.
Mohs Scale
The hardness of a gemstone can be measured with a scale from 1-9, with 10 being the hardest.
Moissanite is a naturally occurring gem that looks like diamond and has a hardness of 9.25. It was discovered by Henri Moissan in 1893 and has been commercially grown (in labs) since the 1980s due to the rarity of natural moissanite occurrence.
A needle is very similar to a feather inclusion, but with one long, thin line. The needle can be white or transparent.
Old European Cut
The Old European Cut is an old diamond cut that was the predecessor to modern round brilliants. The facets on these diamonds are larger and therefore the sparkle and fire will be lower than a regular brilliant diamond.
Old Mine Cut
The Old Mine Cut diamond cut is an antique that features a squarish shape and 58 facets. It has a small table, large culet, and high crown.
Oval cut
Oval cut diamonds have a long and narrow shape all the way round. When used in an engagement ring, they give the illusion of slender fingers. Oval diamonds have recently become more popular because they can offer something a little more unique than a round diamond
Palladium is a precious metal that's both strong and hypoallergenic. This silvery-white metal doesn't need to be plated with other metals, either.
In a pavé setting, diamonds are set closer to each other and secured with tiny metal prongs. This technique is often used for bands on engagement rings where the illusion is achieved that the band contains many small diamonds.
A diamond's pavilion begins near the girdle and ends at the culet. The majority of a diamond's weight is generally found here.
Pear cut
Pear cut diamonds are teardrop shaped and give the illusion of lengthening the finger. They also showcase lots of sparkle.
Jewellery, such as a pendant, is often hung from a chain
Peridot is a pale yellow-green gemstone with a hardness of 6.5 to 7 on the Mohs scale
Pinpoint inclusion
Pinpoint inclusions are tiny fragments that are usually only visible under magnification. They do not compromise the strength of the diamond.
Platinum is a silver-white, valuable metal. It is durable and does not require rhodium plating, making it the best choice for people with sensitive skin.
Diamonds are cut before being polished to reveal a better looking surface. This helps improved the diamond’s shine. The polish on a diamond will affect its cut grade.
Polish lines
While a diamond is being polished, the polishing wheel can create delicate scratches on its surface, called polish lines. Extreme polish lines can affect the diamond’s sparkle.
Precious Gemstones
Diamonds, rubies, sapphires are considered precious gemstones. They are followed by emeralds which are also known as semiprecious stones.
Princess cut
The square-shaped modern princess cut diamond has clean lines & lots of sparkle. This is arguably (and incidentally) the most popular diamond shape in the world.
Prong setting
A diamond is secured to a ring with tiny metal claws. A four-prong setting and six-prong setting are the most popular.
Push back earrings
Clip-on earrings are one of the most popular types of earrings. They're easy to put on and remove and stay securely in place thanks to a small metal post that inserts into a metal backing.
Radiant cut
Radiant diamonds are square or rectangular, have intense brilliance and cropped corners.
When light enters a gemstone, it can be refracted towards the stone’s surface. This lighting angle is what contributes to how sparkly the gemstone appears.
Refractive index
The diamond’s index of refraction is what you measure to know how much light it will refract. Diamonds have a high index of refraction, which is 2.42 on average.
Rhodium is traditionally used to plate white gold and silver jewelry, which makes them more lustrous, protecting them from everyday wear and tear.
Ring enhancer
A Ring Wrap is a ring-enlarging look that adds extra diamonds to your solitaire engagement ring. They can be worn on their own for a more dramatic look, or stacked with your wedding set for formal occasions.
Ring sizer
A ring sizer is used to determine the size of a person's finger for certain rings.
Rose cut
This antique shape has a flat base and a domed crown. Rose cut diamonds usually have from three to 24 facets.
Rose gold
Rose gold is a precious metal with a warm, rosey color. It gets its rosey hue from copper alloys that make it such an aesthetically pleasing color.
Rose quartz
This pink semi-precious gemstone has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale and is commonly used in all types of jewelry.
Rough diamond
A rough diamond is the term given to diamonds that have not been cut or polished. It's like they're in their original state.
Round cut
The round diamond cut has been the most popular cut for a long time and it's easy to see why. They create the most shine and glimmer.
Ruby is a gemstone that has a red color, which is the reason for it being known as ruby. In addition to being brilliantly colored, rubies are also quite durable due to their hardness rating of 9 on the Mohs scale. They're one of the more expensive gemstones you can buy because of its rarity and high quality. 
Satin finish
Satin finishes are often used on engagement rings as they create a smoother luster which contrasts well with the metal.
Diamonds are known to sparkle in a dazzling way on the scintillating gemstone.
Screw back earrings
Screw back earrings are post earrings with a backing that must be screwed on to secure. Typically, these backs are found on expensive earrings.
Semi-bezel setting
A semi bezel setting is a popular choice that encircles half of the gemstone's circumference with metal and allows more light to enter the diamond's side. This means better sparkle.
Semi-precious gemstones
Most gemstones except for diamonds, emeralds, rubies and sapphires would be considered semi-precious.
The wedding band is the backbone of engagement jewelry and the diamond setting in it secures this centerpiece to it.
The shank is the part of a ring that wraps around your finger.
Side stones
Diamonds or gemstones that accompany a ring’s centerpiece, but aren’t the jewel's focal point
A simulant is a stone or metal that looks like a more expensive gemstone. Take cubic zirconia for example. It looks like diamond, but it's actually an imitator - not real diamonds.
A solitaire engagement ring is the most traditional type of engagement ring. It is usually set with a single diamond on a simple, unembellished band.
Split shank
"Split shanks" means that the band of your engagement ring splits at the center setting, creating a visible gap.
Step cut diamonds
The focus of step cut diamonds is on their clarity rather than sparkle. They have larger facets than brilliant cut diamonds which are arranged to look like steps. Step cut diamonds also typically include asscher, emerald, and baguette cuts. 
Sterling silver
Sterling silver is a silvery-white precious metal that has been used for jewellery due to its low cost as it is less expensive than platinum or white gold.
Surprise setting
A surprise setting is a type of engagement ring setting that consists of small accents of diamonds to create sparkle and make the ring more beautiful.
Swiss Blue Topaz
Nowadays, more of the gemstones are artificially dyed to obtain their preferred color rather than being found naturally. In this case, swiss blue topaz is a bright blue gemstone that has a hardness of 8 on the Mohs scale.
The parts of a diamond that the facets are aligned with show how much polishing and shaping went into creating the diamond. A high cut grade will yield more brilliance on the face of the stone.
A table is the flat top surface of a diamond. It’s the largest facet without any shape or size, regardless of what it measures or looks like.
Tension setting
It secures your jewellery by using tension instead of prongs or a bezel.
Three stone setting
Engagement rings often have two side stones & one center stone. Three stones can be an engagement ring setting with a center stone flanked by two side stones. The three symbols represent your past, present, and future together.
Titanium is a metal used for wedding bands. It is durable and very difficult to resize, which can be a downside for many people who want to adjust their ring size.
It refers to the ability of a gemstone to resist breaking. Many gemstones can be classified as hard or soft based on this factor.
Trapezoid cut diamond
Trapezoid cut diamonds are often used for engagement rings which have one side with the vertical angles & another with the horizontal angles. The two most common styles are step cut or brilliant cut.
Trillion cut
Trillion diamonds are cut in the form of triangles. Their sides are either pointed or slightly curved
Tungsten is one of the strongest metals available - it's 4x stronger than titanium and 10x stronger than gold. It is an affordable metal and often used for wedding bands
Twinning wisp
A twinning wisp, sometimes called an inclusion, is a defect which occurs within the structure of a diamond's crystal. It appears as a white striped pattern on the surface of the gemstone.
Ultrasonic cleaner
Instead of using chemicals, an ultrasonic cleaner uses vibrations to clean jewelry.
An untreated gemstone is just as it sounds: a raw and unused stone that has not been processed in any manner.
V prong
A “V” prong secures a gemstone with a piece of metal that is shaped like a “V”. This is typically done with pear or princess cut diamonds, or marquise diamonds.
Vintage jewelry is true vintage jewelry. Most pieces are at least 20 years old, but some are even older. If you are buying vintage-inspired jewelry, make sure to check with the seller that it is indeed genuine vintage!
White gold
White gold is a common alloy that can be found in engagement rings and wedding rings. Many people opt for this metal over other types of metals such as silver because the white gold option provides it's own color without any need for an added silver alloy.
Yellow gold
Yellow gold is a warm, precious metal that has been popular as engagement rings and wedding rings for centuries.